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由同求異

由同求異

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訂購需時10-14天
9789620758331
曾鈺成
商務
2019年10月10日
117.00  元
HK$ 105.3
省下 $11.7
 
二樓書卷使用細則 二樓書卷使用細則





ISBN:9789620758331
  • 規格:平裝 / 169頁 / 14 x 21 x 1 cm / 普通級 / 雙色印刷 / 初版
  • 出版地:香港


  • 語言學習 > 英語 > 英語學習法











      多學同義詞有助解決用詞重複的問題,也讓讀者學會多樣化的表達手法,以豐富多采之方式表情達意,提升英文寫作能力。



    本書特色



      •多用同義詞,寫作更生動

      要提高寫作能力,善用同義詞是好方法,“吃”不只用eat,還可用bolt、devour、wolf 或 gobble形容“狼吞虎嚥”;nibble 或 nibble at形容“細嚼慢嚥”。在英文寫作裏運用同義詞,可令行文更準確、更優美。



      •話題生活化,貼近現代英語

      含日常話題常用詞彙,例如“僭建”,政府的正式叫法是unauthorised building works(違例建築工程),簡稱UBW。又如NG(蝦碌),英文是bloopers。



      •分辨同義詞,便於靈活運用

      try 和 attempt 意義接近,但attempt 通常是指難以成功的嘗試。try 和strive、struggle之區別,是 strive 有持續努力的意思,struggle 的目的未必可以達到。rich 和 wealthy看似可以互用,但在常用說法如rich and famous people,只用 rich而不用 wealthy。



      •提供字源及有趣的歷史背景

      說明部份字詞的字源及有趣的歷史背景。例如,lodestar 這個字本來解作“北極星”;lode 原是 load 的另一種拼法,而load 在古英文指路線、方向,所以 lodestar 是指路的明星,即是從前行船賴以導航的北極星。這字被借用來表示指導的原則或者可以模仿的榜樣。



    好評推薦



      【一句話推介】

      知微妙差異 善用同義詞 行文準確優美



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    Preface 序 ......................................... i

    1 即便啟齒 ............................... 002

    (toilet, restroom, bathroom, washroom, water closet, lavatory, powder room, ladies’ room, women’s room, gentlemen’s room, men’s room)

    2 取消資格 ............................... 004

    (disqualify, unqualify, unfit, unprepared, incompetent, inadequate)

    3 毫無保留 ............................... 006

    (unqualified, absolute, complete, perfect, outright, sheer, thorough, utter)

    4 人人有份 ............................... 008

    (people, person, individual, chairperson, salesperson, spokesperson)

    5 愚不可及 ............................... 010

    (idiot, bonehead, nincompoop, imbecile, empty jack-o-lantern, suntanned ham-loaf, sweet potato)

    6 說三道四 ............................... 012

    (say, remark, observe, comment, opine, point out)

    7 犬吠狼? ............................... 014

    (bark, roar, growl, howl, bleat, purr, twitter, crow, caw, coo)

    8 樂而後笑 ............................... 016

    (laugh, guffaw, chortle, giggle, grin, brim, chuckle, grin, beam, simper, smirk)

    9 不能接受 ............................... 018

    (unacceptable, intolerable, inadmissible, unbearable, unendurable, insufferable)

    10 孰不可忍 ............................... 020

    (deplorable, awful, dreadful, wretched, miserable)

    11 碩大無朋 ............................... 022

    (big, large, huge, vast, colossal, enormous)

    12 嬌小玲瓏 ............................... 024

    (small, little, minute, tiny, minute, dainty, delicate)

    13 吝嗇事實 ............................... 026

    (lie, misrepresentation, misstatement, inaccuracy, mendacity, duplicity, deceit, deception, fabrication)

    14 荒謬可笑 ............................... 028

    (laughable, ludicrous, ridiculous, farcical, funny, absurd, preposterous)

    15 新年快樂 ............................... 030

    (merry, happy, glad, pleased, delighted, cheerful, thrilled, overjoyed)

    16 黃金歲月 ............................... 032

    (ageing, old, elderly, senior, geriatric)

    17 青春常駐 ............................... 034

    (young, youthful, juvenile, immature, green, childish, puerile, childlike)

    18 髒話連篇 ............................... 036

    (shit, dirt, dung, droppings, poo, poo poo, poop)

    19 預知未來 ............................... 038

    (predict, foretell, forecast, prophesy)

    20 驕傲自大 ............................... 040

    (proud, arrogant, conceited, cocky, complacent, haughty, supercilious, haughty, snobbish, boastful, bragging, pompous)

    21 謙虛謹慎 ............................... 042

    (humble, modest, self-effacing, reserved, shy, bashful, diffident)

    22 勝任能幹 ............................... 044

    (good at, great, wonderful, marvellous, incredible, competent, efficient, proficient, capable, skilled, skilful)

    23 顢頇無能 ............................... 046

    (incompetent, inefficient, incapable, clumsy, bungle, maladroit)

    24 非法行為 ............................... 048

    (unauthorized, unlicensed, illegal, unlawful, illegitimate, illicit)

    25 國富民豐 ............................... 050

    (rich, wealthy, well off, better-off, affluent, prosperous)

    26 貧窮無助 ............................... 052

    (poor, needy, penniless, hard up, broke, destitute of, impoverished, poverty-stricken)

    27 合理可信 ............................... 054

    (plausible, possible, convincing, credible, believable)

    28 意見一致 ............................... 056

    (consensus, in agreement with, in accord with, concurrence, by common / mutual consent)

    29 爭論不休 ............................... 058

    (controversy, conflict between / over, a bone of contention, disagreement between / over, an apple of discord)

    30 堅決維護 ............................... 060

    (uphold, adhere to, adhere to, persist in, maintain, sustain, defend, protect, safeguard)

    31 促進鼓勵 ............................... 062

    (promote, advocate, champion, encourage, support, facilitate, endorse, back)

    32 不敢苟同 ............................... 064

    (object, oppose, collaborate, disapprove of, disagree with, dissent from, protest against, complain of / about / against)

    33 互相勾結 ............................... 066

    (cooperate with / on, collude with / in, collaborate, conspire, connive, plot)

    34 公平合理 ............................... 068

    (fair, reasonable, equitable, evenhanded, impartial, unbiased)

    35 有欠公允 ............................... 070

    (unfair, unjust, prejudiced, biased, discriminatory, intolerant)

    36 發展進步 ............................... 072

    (develop, expand, advance, evolve)

    37 粗言穢語 ............................... 074

    (offensive, insulting, rude, crude, indecent, foul, abusive, derogatory, pejorative)

    38 待人以禮 ............................... 076

    (polite, courteous, civil, cordial, respectful, deferential, diplomatic)

    39 無知無邪 ............................... 078

    (naive, gullible, credulous, susceptible to, simple-minded, unsophisticated, innocent, artless, guileless, ingenuous)

    40 叛逆難教 ............................... 080

    (disobedient, mischievous, naughty, rebellious, defiant, wilful, headstrong, refractory, wayward, unruly, disorderly,

    undisciplined)

    41 溫良馴服 ............................... 082

    (obedient, amenable, dutiful, compliant, submissive, docile, subservient, obsequious, servile, fawning, abject)

    42 冷酷無情 ............................... 084

    (inhumane, cruel, brutal, vicious, callous, heartless, hard-hearted, merciless, pitiless, heartless)

    43 宅心仁厚 ............................... 086

    (humane, charitable, generous, benevolent, magnanimous)

    44 苛捐雜稅 ............................... 088

    (tax, customs, excise, duty, tariffs, levies)

    45 以食為天 ............................... 090

    (eat, consume, ingest, bolt, devour, wolf, gobble)

    46 細嚼慢嚥 ............................... 092

    (bite, gnaw, chew, masticate, munch, ruminate, swallow, gulp)

    47 失儀蝦碌 ............................... 094

    (gaffe, faux pas, a blunder in etiquette, impropriety, indecorum, impropriety, indecorum)

    48 小差大錯 ............................... 096

    (mistake, error, blunder, howler, inaccuracy, omission, slip)

    49 不准發聲 ............................... 098

    (hush, gag, muzzle, silence, mute)

    50 生財有道 ............................... 100

    (income, pay, wage, salary, emolument, honorarium)

    51 誰是內鬼 ............................... 102

    (traitor, betrayer, whistle-blower, informer, tattler)

    52 導航北斗 ............................... 104

    (lodestar, role model, guide, prototype, paradigm, paragon, epitome, embodiment)

    53 亂七八糟 ............................... 106

    (chaotic, disordered, confused, tumultuous, turbulent)

    54 衝動魯莽 ............................... 108

    (impetuous, impulsive, rash, headlong, foolhardy, imprudent, hot-headed, ill-considered, immature, thoughtless, reckless)

    55 互相挖苦 ............................... 110

    (harsh, blunt, sharp, tart, testy)

    56 努力奮鬥 ............................... 112

    (try, attempt, endeavor, strive, struggle, do one’s best, make an effort, have a go)

    57 引起情緒 ............................... 114

    (kindle, ignite, inflame, spark, arouse, excite, stimulate)

    58 總有希望 ............................... 116

    (hope, wish, ambition, aspiration, desire, dream, expectation, anticipation)

    59 灰心失望 ............................... 118

    (hopeless, despairing, desperate, despondent, disheartened, forlorn)

    60 一無是處 ............................... 120

    (good-for-nothing, ne’er-do-well, rubbish, deadbeat, failure, slouch)

    61 泰然自若 ............................... 122

    (calm, composure, equanimity, sangfroid)

    62 反覆無常 ............................... 124

    (capricious, unpredictable, mercurial, fickle, volatile, whimsical)

    63 轉彎抹角 ............................... 126

    (tortuous, winding, sinuous, convoluted, complicated, complex)

    64 讚頌之辭 ............................... 128

    (eulogy, tribute, citation, encomium, panegyric)

    65 大方得體 ............................... 130

    (decency, civility, decorum, propriety, dignity)

    66 誤以為真 ............................... 132

    (delusion, illusion, hallucination, misconception, self-deception)

    67 推陳出新 ............................... 134

    (new, fresh, novel, innovative)

    68 時來運轉 ............................... 136

    (change, alternation, adjustments, amendment, modification)

    69 令人驚訝 ............................... 138

    (surprise, amaze, astonish, astound, startle, stun, shock)

    70 功敗垂成 ............................... 140

    (fail, fall through, miscarry, collapse, break down)

    71 東成西就 ............................... 142

    (succeed, manage to, pull off, achieve, accomplish, realise, fulfil, complete, reach)

    72 細說因由 ............................... 144

    (explained, clarify, elaborate, expound, enlighten, interpret)

    73 個別事件 ............................... 146

    (event, incident, happenings)

    74 二次創作 ............................... 148

    (parody, burlesque, caricature, copy, imitate, ape, emulate)

    75 含沙射影 ............................... 150

    (suggest, hint, imply, indicate, insinuate, intimate)

    76 政府停擺 ............................... 152

    (shutdown, closedown, closure, cessation, suspension, halt)

    77 停薪留職 ............................... 154

    (furlough, leave, suspension,)

    78 抱恙在身 ............................... 156

    (illness, sickness, disease, complaint, condition, disorder, infection, malady, ailment, indisposition, seizure)

    79 酒酣耳熱 ............................... 158

    (drunk, intoxicated, legless, paralytic, over the limit, blasted, blitzed, boozy, fried, juiced, ripped, wiped out, in the bag)

    80 銅牆鐵壁 ............................... 160

    (walls, fences, blockades, barricades, barriers)

    81 脫歐百態 ............................... 162

    (Brexit, exit, quit, withdraw from, pull out from)

    82 罪犯天堂 ............................... 164

    (haven, refuge, sanctuary, shelter, hideaway, hideout)

    83 忠實朋友 ............................... 166

    (loyal, faithful, staunch, steadfast, unswerving, unwavering, unfaltering)

    84 背信棄義 ............................... 168

    (disloyal, faithless, unfaithful, treacherous, perfidious, deceitful, traitorous, false)



    ?









      英文有一種工具書叫thesaurus ,即同義詞詞典,裏面在每一個詞之下列出各個意義相同或相近的。例如在smart 之下會列出astute 、brainy 、bright 、brilliant 、canny 、clever 、crafty 、intelligent 、resourceful 、sharp 、shrewd 、wise 等等;這十多個詞的解法都和smart 接近,它們都可以叫做smart 的同義詞,英文叫synonyms。



      各種語文都會有同義詞。例如“聰明”的同義詞有:聰穎、聰敏、精明、明慧、明智、機智、伶俐等等。但英文的同義詞似乎特別多,而且英文的同義詞詞典,即thesaurus ,作為輔助寫作的工具,特別有用。



      讀者或會看到,中文的同義詞,會包含相同的單字,例如上面“聰明”的同義詞,多含有“聰”、“明”、“智”等字;英文的同義詞,拼法看起來卻並不相似,當中可能完全找不到共同的組成部份。



      這是因為現代英語的常用詞,有多個不同的來源。兩個意義相同或者十分接近的英語常用詞,一個可能來自古英語,另一個則是在文藝復興之後從拉丁語、古希臘語或者其他歐洲語言“借”來的;而古英語本身也是由多種方言組成,並且受到入侵外族的語言文化所影響。這是為甚麼英文裏拼法毫不相近的同義詞特別多。



      例如來自古英語的形容詞friendly ,即“友好的”,有來自拉丁語的同義詞amicable 和convivial;解作“敵意”的enmity ,有來自拉丁語和古希臘語的同義詞hostility 和antipathy 。以下每組兩個同義詞,都是一個來自古英語,另一個來自拉丁語或古希臘語;可以看到,兩詞有完全不同的構成:plentiful 和abundant(豐富的), farming 和agriculture(農業), crowd 和multitude(?眾), thanks 和gratitude(感謝), near 和proximate( 接近的), rule 和regulation(規則),bleeding 和hemorrhage(美式拼寫形式)(出血)。



      同義詞雖說“同義”,但各個字之間總會有點差異:很少會有兩個字的意思和用法是完全一樣的。有時,兩個或多個字的解法可能十分接近,但在特定的情況下只有其中一個適用,或者用起來各有不同的效果。例如fat 、plump 、rotund 、stout 和 obese 都有“肥胖”的意思;但是,假如你面前有一個身軀肥胖的人,你選用哪一個字來形容他(她),對方會有十分不同的感受。



      我們認識同義詞,應該留意它們之間的(可能是十分微妙的)差別,務求在不同的場合、按不同的需要,能夠選用最恰當的字。這就是“由同求異”的意義。

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    1. 矛盾二集
    2. 矛盾集
    3. 我愛學英文
    4. 蓬間集
    5. 英語詞源趣談
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